Many cities in the south of Chad, such as N’Djamena (the capital), Sarh and Moundou lie along key rivers which flow into Lake Chad. In the drier middle and north of the country, places have a different feel, such as the ancient Muslim trading centre of Abéché. Rock paintings found in the Tibesti Mountains in the far north attest to the region's long history of habitation.


This ancient town became the capital of the Muslim sultanate of Ouaddai, which was powerful in the region before the French took control in the early twentieth century. The remains of the sultan’s palace and tombs can be found here. Abéché has many mosques and is still an important Islamic centre. It also acts as a centre for trade in the Ouaddi region, which is crossed by caravan routes northwards through the Sahara and eastwards for those on the Islamic hajj pilgrimage to Mecca. Camel races are a popular attraction here.

Chari, Logone Rivers

The Chari and Logone are the main rivers which feed Lake Chad. The two rivers join up at the capital N’Djamena, where their waters combine. For much of the year, both rivers are navigable, but they become very low during the dry season.

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Click on the map points in Niger to find out more about some of its key cities and geographical features.


The capital of Chad lies on the east bank of the Chari River, near to where it meets the Logone River. These rivers flood during the rainy season, creating a rich alluvial plain where crops do well. The city was established by the French in 1900 and called Fort-Lamy. Its name was changed to N’Djamena in 1973. With its international airport, N’Djamena is the base for most visitors travelling to Chad. The capital is known for its cheerful atmosphere and vibrant nightlife, but also for the poverty among many of its residents.

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Have a look at some of the regions, features and places of interest in Sudan.


Africa has a high number of communicable diseases, which place a huge burden on healthcare systems. The vast majority of malaria cases and HIV/AIDS-related deaths occur in Africa; these two diseases currently represent the greatest threats.

With low investment in healthcare and a severe shortage of medical staff, many countries struggle to meet the health needs of their people.

Lake Chad

Lake Chad is facing extreme environmental threats due to climate change and the mismanagement of water. Projects are under way to set up alternative sources of water in surrounding areas. Hopefully such measures will help to preserve Lake Chad’s unique ecosystem and endangered biodiversity.

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Explore some of the towns and cities of Cameroon, as well as its most popular national parks.


Moundou is the third largest city in Chad and lies along the Logone River. Like Sarh, it is the centre of an important cotton-growing area. However, Moundou is perhaps best known for its beer industry. The town is home to the Gala brewery, which produces the country’s most popular beers.

Games & Sport

Africa is home to arguably the oldest-recorded games and sports. While some are only known through archaeology, modern-day games and sports such as Mancala/Mankala and Nubian wrestling are very much alive today.

Of course, new sports have come along to claim the attention of Africans. You may have heard of one - it's called football.

Agriculture & Famine

A quarter of the population of sub-Saharan Africa is undernourished and famines can impact whole regions.

Land is available to grow more food locally, but investment is needed in  technologies such as irrigation for land to be used effectively. Farmers must also adapt to climate change if they are to feed the continent's rising population.


‘People are the real wealth of a nation.’ This is the belief of the United Nations, whose Millenium Development Goals provide a framework for improving the lives of millions.

It helps when nations are peaceful, stable and growing economically. But where even the poorest countries focus on health, education and creating fairer societies, more Africans have the chance of a better life.

Tibesti Mountains

The Tibesti Mountains are the largest and highest range in the central Sahara region. They were formed by volcanic activity, though the huge dark volcanoes and craters are currently inactive. Hidden in the mountains are hundreds of rock paintings created by early humans who inhabited this region. Today, the Tubu/Toubou people live in this arid and hot region, relying on wells which tap into underground sources of water.

Zakouma National Park

The Zakouma National Park lies around 800km southeast of the capital. Long years of conflict and poaching took their toll on the animal populations here. However, with assistance from the European Union, a programme of restocking the park's animals has taken place. This means elephants, giraffes, wildebeests, lions and antelopes can once again been seen around the watering holes of this 300,000 hectare park.


The city of Sarh lies on the Chari river and is Chad’s second largest urban centre. With the wetter climate of the south, sugarcane and cotton are grown in the surrounding region. The city is particularly known for its textile industries and handicrafts, which can be found at the Artisan’s Centre. It is also a key area for fishing.

Geography & Wildlife

With its varied geography and diverse habits, the African continent is home to a wide range of flora and fauna. Though famous for its 'big game' animals, Africa has huge numbers of fish, mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian and insect species, as well as many tree, plant and flower species.

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Find out more about some of the key towns and cities of Algeria, as well as areas of natural and geographic interest to the south.


The first humans are thought to have lived in Africa and powerful African empires formed from the medieval age onwards.

However, today's African nations were shaped by the European powers who colonised this vast continent. Having gained their independence, many African countries are still coming to terms with the legacy left by their colonisers.


Across the rest of the world, absolute poverty has halved over recent decades, but in Africa it has barely fallen.

About two-fifths of the population of sub-Saharan Africa survive week by week on what someone in the UK earns from just one hour's work on the minimum wage.


Around one in six children born in sub-Saharan Africa don't live to see their fifth birthday and life can be tough for those who do.

What are the common challenges facing African children and how do their lives compare with those of children in the UK?

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Explore Nigeria

Explore the map of Nigeria to find out more about some of the country's geographical features, parks and cities.


A woman’s status varies by country and region across Africa. In many parts, women struggle against inequality in laws, education, pay and domestic responsibilities.

Women’s health is also at risk from traditional practices such as early marriage. But with better education, girls can make more informed choices, leading to the greater development of African nations.


Africa is a massive continent, with a range of climates. Some regions are hot and dry, like the Sahara, Kalahari and Namib deserts. Other parts are wet or covered in tropical rainforest. Conditions also vary by altitude, from the dry salt pans of the Danakil Depression (one of the lowest points on earth) to the snowcaps (at certain times) of the highest mountains. Weather-wise, Africa has it all!


Africa has some of the most distinctive cuisines and flavours in the world. Food varies widely, but there are commonalities across regions. Depending on what's grown locally, dishes are also influenced by the traders, immigrants and rulers who settled across the continent. Arab, Asian and European elements blend in with traditional African cooking.

Chad map N’Djamena Moundou Sarh Abéché Zakouma National Park Lake Chad Tibesti Mountains Niger map Cameroon map Sudan map Chari, Logone Rivers Nigeria map Algeria map